Midterm Review Outlines for Questions 1-4:

1. Discuss earthquakes. Include in your discussion what they are, why they occur, how they relate to plate tectonics, how they are measured and located, the hazards associated with them, and what effects they have on lives and property. Include how and why we study earthquakes.

I. Overview

II. Definition
       -
a release of energy stored in rocks, felt as seismic waves

III. Elastic Rebound Theory
        - Describe how this theory works - energy accumulates in rocks, they deform, then they release that energy -> this is felt as an earthquake

IV. Plate Tectonics
        - Explain the connection with plate tectonics
        - Also explain how earthquakes are distributed non-randomly - what's the pattern?

V. Measurement
        - Magnitude
            - Richter, Moment - both measure energy released (describe how the scale works)
        - Intensity
            - Measurement of damage from an earthquake (I-XII); describe how the scale works
        - Location
            - Describe how earthquake epicenters are plotted on a map

VI. Hazards
        - Ground Motion  
        - Tsunamis
        - Landslides/Mass Wasting
        - Liquefaction

VII. Significance
        - Why do we study earthquakes?
        - What can we do about them?
        - Can we predict them?

VIII. Summary
        -
Include a summary of the main concepts and points here

 

2. Discuss volcanoesInclude in your discussion magma sources and types, kinds and locations of volcanic activity, hazards related to volcanoes, and issues in predicting volcanic eruptions. Also discuss why it is important/significant to study volcanoes.

I. Overview

II. Definition
       - a vent in the crust of the earth or another planet or a moon from which usually molten or hot rock and steam issue; also :a hill or mountain composed wholly or in part of the ejected material

III. Origin of Volcanoes
       - Discuss where magma originates/comes from
       - Discuss the origin of volcanoes and where they're found on Earth

IV. Types of Volcanoes
       - List and describe the main types
       - Also discuss why there are different types and why they are found where they are

V. Hazards
       - List and discuss the different hazards associated with volcanoes
       - Also discuss what we can do about them
       - Discuss prediction of volcanic eruptions and hazards

VI. Significance
       - Discuss why it is important to study volcanoes as well as some of the techniques used

VII. Summary
       - Include a summary of the main concepts and points here

 

3. Discuss severe weather and flooding. Include what weather is, what streams are, how each relates to the hydrologic cycle. Also discuss what flooding and flood hazards are and what we can do about it. Finally discuss why it is significant to study each topic.

I. Overview

II. Definition
        - Define what flooding and severe weather are
        - Include their connection - Hydrologic Cycle and Atmosphere

III. Flooding
        - Discuss Rivers and how they work
        - Describe Causes and Effects of Flooding
        - Discuss Types of Flooding

IV. Severe Weather
        - Discuss Atmosphere and Severe Weather Connection
        - Discuss Causes and Effects of Severe Weather
        - Discuss Types of Severe Weather

V. Hazards
        - List and describe hazards associated with flooding and severe weather
        - Discuss what we can do about some of the hazards

VI. Significance
        - Discuss the significance of studying each topic

VII. Summary
        - Include a summary of the main concepts and points here

 

4. Discuss mass wasting and subsidence. Include in your discussion types of mass wasting, causes, hazards associated, and what we can do about it. Also discuss what subsidence is and its causes as well as hazards posed by subsidence. Finally, discuss connections between both phenomena.

I. Overview

II. Definition
        - Define what mass wasting and subsidence are
        - Include their connections

III. Mass Wasting
        - Discuss Landslides and how they work
        - Describe Causes and Effects of Landslides
        - Discuss Types of Landslides

IV. Subsidence
        - Discuss Subsidence
        - Discuss Causes and Effects of Subsidence
        - Discuss Types of Subsidence

V. Hazards
        - List and describe hazards associated with Mass Wasting and Subsidence
        - Discuss what we can do about some of the hazards

VI. Significance
        - Discuss the significance of studying each topic

VII. Summary
        - Include a summary of the main concepts and points here